Dating the exodus from egypt
Is there any physical evidence for the Exodus described in the Bible?
If you were to read the popular press, you would come to the conclusion that not only was there no evidence, but the evidence actually contradicted known archaeology.
In any case, it would place a Hebrew advisor to the kings within the range of years claimed for the Exodus just as Joseph was to an Egyptian king hundreds of years earlier.
In the book of Genesis, Joseph rose from captive to be second only to the Pharaoh, and he was empowered to save Egypt from starvation during a seven-year drought. Exhibit 4: The Shiphra Papyrus Is the name of the Hebrew midwife in Exodus the same as that of a slave mentioned in an ancient Egyptian papyrus? It includes a slave named Shiphra and others with Semitic names. Since by that time all Hebrews had been put into servitude by the Pharaoh, the midwife Shiphra would also have been a slave.
We must be content to repeat the most pertinent of the famous "Four Questions," which the youngest at the table asks on the first night: "Why is this night different from all other nights?
Was the story of the Israelites fleeing Egypt after years of slavery history or myth?
Krahmalkov concedes the lack of archaeological evidence, but he points out that the Egyptians thoroughly mapped these sites, as well as a number of other regions mentioned in the Bible. Exhibit 3: Aper-el's Tomb Was there a Hebrew advisor to Egyptian kings at the time of the Exodus?
The mapping was done in the Late Bronze age, in Dynasties XVIII and XIX (according to his dating, 1560-1200 B. In 1987, searchers rediscovered a tomb in the Saqqara region of Egypt belonging to a man they call Aper-el. The tomb was originally discovered by the legendary archeologist Sir Flinders Petrie in the 1880s.
However, Krahmalkov discusses a number of biblical sites that appear to be corroborated by Egyptian sources. The maps survive in list form, and they are found on the temple walls of ancient Egyptian kings.
Among them are Dibon (Numbers ), a city where the Israelites' camped on their way to invade Canaan, and Hebron (Numbers ), another city targeted for invasion. Since they are documented in the most important extra-biblical source -- Egypt -- the evidence is strong that these cities indeed existed at the time of the Exodus.