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Maintain attribution Tht Goog Xt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find additional materials through Google Book Search. Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. On that date he wrote to Newcastle (and later to the board of trade and Lord President Harrington) regarding Fort Dununer, the chief defense of New Eng- land toward the new French stronghold of Crown Point, */ottr., May 31, 1744, pp. Shirley had soundingrs made "of the channel and water about the islands adjacent to . The river towns of Massachusetts would be the obvious points of attack for a French or hostile Indian force which might get access to the Connecticut valley, although smaller settle- ments in New Hampshire would in such a case be in im- minent danger, while, should the western frontier of Massa- chusetts collapse, northwestern Connecticut would be ex- posed.
Do not assume that just because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries. The Fort Dummer episode was an incident in the general and ceaseless attempt of Massachusetts in time of war to ^ After explaining that Fort Dummer and one or two garrison houses beyond it (the chief one was the fort at Number 4, now Charlestown, New Hampshire), which had been built and garrisoned by Massachusetts, had now by the settlement of the boundary been awarded to New Hampshire, he recounted that at his accession the fort was garrisoned by a Massachusetts officer and twenty men under the direction and receiving the pay of that province, and that in view of the probability of war with France, in order to preserve from burning by the Indians this most important outpost for protecting New England from raids or invasion from Canada by way of the Connecticut valley, he had secured from the assembly the maintenance of the garrison there.
The judgment has been generally expressed that the period of colonial history within which Shirley's career falls, that lying between the English Revolution and the events just before the American Revolution, is without great intrinsic significance. *This expedition against Canso was being prepared on May 6th, a day after the news of war reached Louisburg. It had neither fort nor artillery, and since, as reported, the barracks for the men and officers and the other houses were all of unsubstantial deal, it was incapable of defense. On August 28th, the board of trade (they having meanwhile been consulted lipon Shirley's letters to Newcastle and Harrington on the sub- ject) reported that New Hampshire should assume the support of Fort Dummer, and that the governor of that province be directed to warn the assembly that upon failing to comply, the crown would be forced to restore the fort to Massachusetts with "a proper district contiguous /thereto," and that meanwhile Shirley be instructed to maintain it *For Shirley's discussion of this question, cf, Shirley to Newcastle, May 31, 1744, C.
Re- cently, however, a considerable number of monographs have been written dealing with matters falling within this period and the time is perhaps approaching when the darkness in which it has been shrouded will be dissipated. The inhabitants were few, and the fishing industry of which it had been a center had dwindled in consequence of the Spanish war.
Along with this unity, representing the established and the *' usual " in the English imperial system, there is a lesser unity, that of the Americans standing for a polity made up of elements some of which were wholly English and unchallenged at home and others rather de facto than regular and accepted. He in fact urged upon the h(»ne government the need for a uniform r^ulation of paper money in all four New England governments as the only real remedy for the existing evils.* At the same time that he took this position he found it necessary to oppose extremists who wished Parliament not only to regulate paper money in New England, but to sup- press it entirely at the end of seven years. New England, he pointed out, would be much worse crippled without a medium of exchange than Virginia, Maryland and the Sugar Islands, inasmuch as she unlike them had no staple to serve as a sul- stitute for it. It then seemed visionary, yet in a brief season it was to be realized. The primary responsibility for what hap- pened lay with the British government, for failing properly to defend her outlying possessions and for further negli- gently permitting delay in notifying her colonies in America of the outbreak of war. Duquesnel, the commander at Louisburg, ample time to prepare and despatch an expedition against Canso,* before any effectual ^Jour., Apr. One of these a sloop carrying ninety-four men, eight carriage guns, swivels, etc., was captured about a month later by the Massachusetts guard ship in Massachusetts Bay.
The latter, including those elements which the home government did not seriously attempt to regulate and those which they failed in the ef- fort to qontrcd, make up the stream of forces which should prove most significant to the student of the causes of the American Revolution. In opposition to such a scheme he had already in 1743 pointed out that the bills were at the time the sole available currency for both public and private purposes, and that for a time suppression would entail an almost complete impotence of the govern- ment. REFORMS, CHIEFLY ECONOMIC 175 of business that English trade would suffer severely, and might be almost destroyed through the growth of local manufactures to supply articles the colonists would be im- able to buy in England for lack of money. Such a deliverance from paper currency, he concluded, would be much for his majesty's service, and the most beneficial change which could happen to the country and the British trade thither.^ This, however, like most suggestions involving large in- itiative on the part of the home government, aroused no enthusiasm at home. As Parliament made no headway, meanwhile, in handling the currency question, paper money remained with its at- tendant evils during the war with France.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is allowed. He then gave an account of his efforts to have the support of it assumed by New Hampshire, in which he had met delay, first to allow Governor Wcntworth an opportunity to press the legislature to make the necessary provision, and then through the neglect of the legislature to do so.
Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the publisher to a library and finally to you. In each period his PREFACE 9 activity imd influence were much more extensive than the offices hdd would suggest For my introduction to Shirley I am indebted to the late Professor Herbert L. It was also my privilege to collect considerable of my material in Boston under his general supervision and to sit at his side in the Public Record Ofl Bce in London where he shared with me the use of the fresh proof-^eets of volume II of Professor Charles M. This was that the policy of Holland might offer a solution for the New England problem. Further, his progress in reducing the large quantities of paper left outstanding by Belcher and in preventing large accumulations for the future, whereby the evil of depreciation would have been perpetuated, had been striking, especially in view of large extraordinary outlays which had to be provided for in ad- dition to the regular provincial expenses. ii57*7o6 Increase (computed by Shirley) during Belcher's ad- ministration (1730-1741) from above cause 164,701 Sum total of arrears in outstanding bills at Shirley's accession due to failure to issue executions 322,407 Bills in arrears at his accession drawn in and burned during Shirley's administration to August, 1743 ^109,798 Bills in arrears at his accession drawn in and burned between issue of general writs of execution in Aug., 1743 and Dec, 1743 36,000 Total of such bills drawn in and burned under Shirley to Dec, 1743 145,798 I4S,? 155] respectively.) ^ Provision in supply bill of Jjui,, 1742 to cover above Old arrears of taxes: Tenor For tax to be apportioned in 1742 £20,000 " " " " " " 1743 50,000 Balance to be covered in 17 by duties of excise, impost, etc., and taxes on towns for pay of representatives 36,525 Total 106,525 106,525 REFORMS, CHIEFLY ECONOMIC 179 Sums required under Shirley for extraordinary expenses of Old government : Tenor For expenditures for new works at Castle William and* re- pairing old works there and elsewhere, purchasing military stores and paying five hundred pounds due the king £50,000 For maintaining the province ship 50,000 For deficiency of fund raised under Belcher for redeeming middle-tenor bills in silver and gold in Dec, 1742, £8,000 in (second) new tenor 52,000 For computed arrears of public debts at Shirley's accession not covered by money in treasury nor provision by act of assembly to meet them 32,000 Total 144,000 Available towards paying above : Balance of fund for encouraging West Indian expedition still in treasury 460a Sum required for extraordinary expenses before Dec., 1743, for which provision had to be made by new issues 139,20a Emissions of paper money under ^irley before Dec, 1743: (Second) Old Computed: New Tenor Sterling Tenor Value Value January, 1742 ♦ £30,000 £120,000 £20,000 July, 1742 i Sf OOO 60,000 10,000 January, 1743 20,000 80,000 13,400 November, 1743 20,000 80,000 13,400 Totals 85,000 240,000 56,800 The dates of the emissions above are taken from the A, and R, Those given by Shirley were for the sessions, not the acts. CHAPTER IX Meeting the Outbreak of War The approach of the war with France had been so clearly discerned that obvious precautions had been taken before its actual arrival. Andrews' guide to the materials for American history in that depository. In coining schel- lin^s and guelders the Dutch used such an alloy that the silver could ilbt be separated without an expense of 5%, thus making it commercially unprofitable to turn the coins into merchandise to be used where the coins as such would not ^"(Reasons against an immediate total suppression of paper bills of publick credit in New England," Sh. This appears from the appended statement of the condition of the Massa- chusetts paper currency before and after his accession.* 1 Shirley to Harrington, June 20, 1744 C. £* Such bills outstanding Dec, 1743, but expected in by May, 1744 176,605^ Midd U Old Tenor Tenor Outstanding, Aug., 1741, for drawing which into the ^5525 treasury no funds existed, due to failure to levy taxes 30,000 in 17 £17,000 51,000 Total 106,52s (This total is slightly larger than the figures given by A, and R., vol. 10812 and Davis, "Currency and Banking in the Province of Massachusetts Bay," [in the Publications of the American Economic Association, 3d ser., vol. Above emissions to be drawn in before end of 1746 by taxes so levied as to keep the amount issued tmder Shirley outstanding below £30,000 sterling at all times during the intervening years. * For convenience the value of the issue of January, 1742, is given m (second) new tenor although the issue was in middle tenor. 5 884, F/, 19, and a "State of the out- standing bills of credit of the province of Massachusetts Bay ex- tracted from the accounts of the several treasurers for the time being irom the year, 1702, to the year, 1743," C. Many of the steps taken for the protection of the frontiers and the coast, to cultivate good relations with the Indians, and to secure liberty to raise necessary funds have already been recounted/ Other measures adopted before the actual break looked to the training of new Indian interpreters to replace two deceased and others become aged,* and to substituting for pensions to Indian chiefs (which had not bound the tribes living within the province to the government), gifts of powder, shot and provisions to the tribes.' Shirley also asked for a grant of authority from the legislature to act for the defense of the province in case war began during a recess of the general court. The present study was tmdertaken without other plan 7 8 PREFACE than to place a colonial administrator in his proper setting. 181 l82 WILLIAM SHIRLEY-'A HISTORY do not imagine any immediate damage would accrue to the province by such a proceeding at this time." ^ After the existence of war was known, Shirley renewed his effort to make the lower house provide for prompt action in a military emergency arising in recess of the assembly, but without effect* Meanwhile Shirley hdd the legislature in session by four adjournments from March 226 to April 28th, before dis- solution, apparently expecting notice of the outbreak of war. Under these circumn stances, Kilby, the Massachusetts agent in England, sug- gested that as the garrison was useless at Canso it should be at once sent to Annapolis Royal. O, s 900, 104; Shirley to Newcastle, July 7, I744» Sh. As the material for the work was collected it became ap- parent that Shirley was modie truly an imperial than a colon- ial figure, despite geographic limitations. On May sth he received unofficial news of the rupture which he had anticipated. This place was held by five companies, not over one hundred effective men, and greatly needed the reinforcement, even to hold their ground against the French inhabitants of the region, who were likely to starve the English troops unless they succeeded in getting some of the chief Frenchmen as hostages. l84 WILLIAM SHIRLEY-^A HISTORY to Annapolis Royal was made after the declaration of war^ and there was no time to carry it out before an expedition from Louisburg under Captain Duvivier pounced upon the helpless denizens of Canso on May 24, 1744, accepted the inevitable surrender of Captain Heron, his men and the in- habitants, and after burning the buildings carried their prisoners including the families of the garrison, in all seventy or more persons, to Louisburg.^ Thus France scored the first and a bloodless victory in America.