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The biggest worry for Suttner and other pacifists, including Swedish explosives manufacturer Alfred Nobel (1833–1896), was the technological dynamism of the time coupled with the frightening military implications of these material changes.To avoid a military-technological Armageddon, the pacifist movement unsuccessfully advanced the idea of substituting arbitration procedures for the traditional “final arbiter”: war.This article assesses the role of the pre-1914 armaments competition, among many other factors, in helping to bring about the First World War. Seligmann, However, this article argues that the Anglo-German naval race in particular played a direct role in converting a European war into a World War by dragging Britain into the conflagration and indirectly influencing Turkey to cast the iron dice and go to war.The methods applied are empirical, comparative, and based on the synthesis of other historians’ work. Britain and Turkey’s entry into war rapidly spread the fighting to other parts of the world.Reinforcing rival pacifist efforts, the so-called Second International socialist movement also strove to stop the wheels of war from running over the workingmen of the world.
At the top of this hierarchy were the great dominant nation-states, many of them conquerors of other peoples: Great Britain, France, Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire (see map).Pacifists like Austrian noblewoman Bertha von Suttner (1843–1914) feared this process of squaring off and the “remnants of the old barbarism” in Europe.She condemned “the rage of one people against another” that threatened modern civilization.New weapons produced during the Industrial Revolution in the late 1800s heightened existing tensions among European nations as countries strove to outpace their enemies technologically.This armaments race accelerated in the decade before 1914 as the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy squared off against the Triple Entente of France, Russia, and Britain.